I’m sure that I’m mostly preaching to the choir here, but more and more research is coming out with a clear message about childhood: Children learn through play. This is how human beings are programmed to learn. And yet, more and more, free play and outdoor play are disappearing from our school’s schedules.
The complexities of role-play provide cognitive and social benefits that we cannot provide for the children when we teach them compartmentalized skills in math, phonics, and other stand-alone subject areas. When children are given time to engage in free play, following their own interests and curiosities, they become enthusiastically engrossed in observation, hypothesis, problem-solving, etc. They develop vital social skills and language skills, they develop their imagination and take great pride in their work. When my Grade 1 son comes home from school and I ask him what he did that day, he still answers that he “just played all day”. Yet he understands concepts like multiplication (which I certainly didn’t know anything about in Grade 1), and he demonstrates incredible emotional intelligence that I must admit has not all come from me.
Of course there will always be things that we need to teach TO the students. But as you are planning this week, take some time to think about how much of your classroom experience is teacher-initiated and how much is provoking students to create, imagine, and play.
And for those of you all doing that, you probably have parents in your class who need convincing. This article is what inspired today’s post, and it could be a good resource to share with your parents.
How do you encourage child-initiated play in your classroom?
I’m trying something very new and experimental in my classes this year. It’s wonderful, discouraging, overwhelming, eye-opening, frustrating and amazing all at once.
As teachers, we want the best for our children. We are visionaries, and we want to be game-changers all the time. So sometimes it can be frustrating or discouraging when we have an idea of where we want to be in our heads, but no matter what we do, we just aren’t there yet.
Today, I just want us to reflect on the steps that we are taking and enjoy the journey. Change takes time, and moving toward an incredible goal will inevitably have setbacks. Keep moving forward.
“The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.” – Lao Tzu
Here’s an idea for people who are fortunate enough to have computer access. If you are in a one-to-one school, or even if you have a class set of iPads, this is something to try!
Instead of a paper exit slip, email the students a link to a short Google Form. There are several options for question types, and you can even prompt the students with pictures or YouTube videos.
The genius in this system is that you can see all the responses in a single document! With this system I can quickly highlight or color-code to give an overview of the level of understanding in each of my classes. I’ve just started doing this, but I’m really excited about the potential.
Every music teacher knows how much students just want to experiment (make lots of noise) when they come into a room full of instruments. As people, this probably drives us crazy, but as teachers, we should rejoice in the enthusiasm and curiosity!
In the first few lessons of the year, I just let my pre-kindergarten children go nuts with a carefully selected set of instruments.
- The first lesson I just put the instruments out and let them play. Without much more prompting, I encouraged the students to sort their findings into “shaking”, “tapping” and “scraping” instruments.
- In the second lesson, I prompted them to think about a new way to make sounds on the instrument, and to figure out how to make both loud and quiet sounds. Some students started slowing down and really examining their instruments now.
- By the third lesson, some of the novelty had worn off–*some*–and more students were finally exploring with more purpose. Each child’s “moment” was fantastic to watch, as they went from shaking and banging with all their might, to carefully turning instruments in their hands, following the sticks and beaters with their eyes, and playing the instruments right next to their ears.
It [the wave drum] sounds like ocean music. Listen!
This one [triangle] makes a high sound, and that one makes a more high sound.
What kind of sound does that one make?
You can tap here, but it [the tambourine] also makes noise when I push my fingers on it.
[whispering] Can you hear this? It’s so soft.
*It’s a discussion for another day, but always make sure your students are using instruments with good sounds! I’m often appalled at xylophones or glockenspiels that are not in tune, bells that don’t have a nice ring, and other abominations labeled as “children’s musical instruments.” Some of the instruments I have kept in my room are linked below.
Although I’ve found myself acknowledging fewer holidays in my classes over the years, many students are still looking to make connections to some of the more popular holidays. Halloween is one.
Last year I wrote about a silly song you could sing with your students, and in this post I want to highlight a few other songs that could fit into your curriculum.
A few songs that are fun for children to sing:
- Five Little Pumpkins (Raffi version) – great to reinforce the scales and stepwise motion
- Skin and Bones – teach the children to sing piano and forte while maintaining good tone
- Pick a Pumpkin – introduce sixteenth notes (tika tika)
- This is Halloween – perhaps just sing the chorus, which is great for teaching “tika ti”
And some songs for listening and moving:
- Theme from The Addams Family – snap or get out some claves to play along
- Monster Mash – great for dancing, have the students create their own “monster mash”
- Thriller – you know you want to teach them part of this dance…
- Ghostbusters theme – great for adding some actions or dramatic play
In Music, this is a great time of year to explore that beautiful instrument known as the human voice. Do some vocalizing through ghostly wails. Practice dynamic range with sneaky monsters and surprised victims. Explore the different timbres of the voice, and discuss the incredible effects of changing timbres, dynamics, and pitch ranges. For younger children, try this book.
Finally, check out this post or this other post for some great classical music ideas to accompany the season of ghouls and spirits.
I recently dedicated some time to closing some of the 86 tabs I had open, and I finally had a chance to read an Edutopia article that I’d opened long ago. As inquiry teachers, and certainly as music teachers as well, I think it is fairly intuitive to use mistakes as opportunities to reflect and improve, rather than simply labeling them as “wrong.” There were a few ideas that I’ve taken into my classroom this week with a heightened awareness of how I react to “wrong” answers, and I feel like they have helped to keep interest and momentum going.
The first was to respond with a clarifying question or a “What makes you say that? If you could ask yourself a question about that answer, what would it be?” Not only does this encourage the student to think more deeply, it also makes the student’s misconceptions more visible to me as the teacher.
Another interesting idea—and one that seemed pretty far out there when I first read it—is to have a wall or a class discussion where students focus on mistakes they’ve made and how they learned from them. I am still wrapping my head around the best way to frame that, but I like the concept!
The bottom line is that the more transparent we are about mistakes and how useful they can be to all of us (teachers and students), the more students will feel comfortable taking risks, trying new things, and learning from their mistakes instead of trying to hide them.
What kinds of things do you do to redirect mistakes into learning?
If you haven’t read Part I, have a look there first.
At some point, the graphic notation will start to prove difficult. Students who are making more conscious, precise decisions about dynamics, pitch, and rhythm will need an equally precise system for notating their sounds. “Prep” the transition early on, and often, by exposing them to traditional notation and pointing out what you can see (familiar rhythms, pitch relationships, clefs, etc.). This way the symbols are already familiar and it just becomes a matter of taking it to the next level.
Students can begin by using the notation that they DO know. For example, they might write quarter notes and eighth notes higher and lower across a graphic score before they understand fixed pitch notation. As they gain literacy in traditional Western notation, they can incorporate more and more elements into their graphic scores.
As a final note, decide what your priorities are. Over the years, I have spent less and less time on explicitly teaching traditional Western notation. Students who need it are learning it in their private lessons. Many of the other students find it tedious and discouraging when they should be learning to understand the purpose of music, to enjoy listening to and making music, and to interpret music within its context. I present my students with many kinds of notation, and I expose them to traditional Western notation whenever it’s appropriate. And don’t get me wrong, I still ask students to try to notate compositions now and then; it is a skill that I want to develop in y students. But I am no longer pulling my hair out trying to get every single child to document their creativity in this specific way, I am no longer drilling students on lines and spaces, and I have a happier, more creative classroom because of it.
I used to get very frustrated trying to teach notation or getting students to accurately notate their compositions on the staff. But I’ve changed, and so can you!*
Don’t get bogged down with notating compositions. It kills the creative flow. Young composers know what they want their music to sound like. They can often remember it without writing anything down. If not, record it, and they can probably reproduce it.
As students start writing more complex music, or even just lengthier music, they can create a “musical map” of their piece. They should create symbols that another person can understand (i.e., there should be some logic behind them), and the map should show us the time relationships (i.e., where to begin and end, where there may be spaces, and some sense of relative duration).
Parallel to language literacy, young students can speak and think at a much higher level than they can fluently write. By not requiring students to notate in a specific way, you are allowing them to focus their energy on creating interesting musical compositions that are not limited by their notation abilities.
*Note: I’m not suggesting that students shouldn’t notate–or be able to notate–music. I’m simply saying that we shouldn’t let it be an obstacle to creativity. I no longer think that notation is as important for every student, from an early age, as I used to believe it was. Ready to move on to notation? Read Part II here.
For many teachers, making the change to PYP can be overwhelming, not only with all the jargon, but the complete shift in thinking. It’s not that the concepts are strange—it’s not even that we weren’t already doing these things. The change is in the focus, and one of the big focus points is in developing critical thinking.
Critical thinking isn’t just for PYP teachers, of course. It is one of the most important skills we need to develop in our students (and one of the ubiquitous 21st century skills that have come to the forefront of educational discussion). And it isn’t limited to a set of subjects; we can and should apply it to everything we do. So today I’m writing about some ways to develop critical thinking in your music class OR some ways to incorporate music into your classroom. You can make some great connections to literacy learning, using lyrics—or even music without words—in the context of making text-to-self / text-to-text / text-to-world connections.
Music is wonderful fodder for critical thinking because it speaks to us in ways that we can’t always explain or even understand. Instrumental music requires some level of critical thinking simply to translate it into words! Even the youngest students can do this successfully.
Any kind of music can be a starting point for thoughtful discussion: any genre, any language, any culture, solo or ensemble… You might choose music that speaks to you as the teacher. You might let students offer suggestions. Choose something familiar or unfamiliar, tonal or atonal, composed or improvised, recorded or live. Use some of the questions below (or see this post for more) to start your discussion, and off you go!
- Why do you think the composer wrote this piece? (Perspective, Function)
- How does the music make you feel? (Reflection, Connection)
- How would it change if the performer played a trumpet instead of a violin? (Change, Connection)
- How does the mood of the instrumental music support (or contrast) the mood of the lyrics? (Function, Connection)
- What do the lyrics mean to you? (Reflection, Connection)
- What does it make you think of from your own life? (Connection, Reflection)
- What other music does it remind you of? (Connection, Perspective)
- Why is this music memorable? Why has it stood the test of time? (Form, Causation, Perspective)
Once students have shared their initial thoughts, follow up with questions that encourage them to support their ideas (“What makes you say that?”) or think from different perspectives (“Why might ___ think differently?”). Older students might discuss in groups first, then share their already-developed thoughts with the class. You can take these discussions as far and as deep as you wish. No matter how far you go, simply modelling this kind of questioning and encouraging new ways of thinking will help your students to become better thinkers and learners.
Posted in Inquiry
Tagged connection, critical thinking, discussion, key concepts, listening, perspective, PYP, questioning, questions, reflection, thinking skills