Metacognition and Student Reporters

These ideas can be used in any class, or any subject, but arose as a solution to a specialist situation.

Specialist teachers have such limited time with students—and so many students—that getting an overview of students’ learning becomes a perpetual challenge. My colleagues and I have been wondering how to get a better understanding of the students’ understanding, and looking for ways to consolidate and solidify the learning at the end of each class. At the same time, we have been having discussions about how to make parents more aware of the wonderful learning that happens in Music. After a lot of discussion, we came up with something that ticks ALL these criteria. And on top of that, the kids think it’s really fun! We call it “Music Reporters”.

In a nutshell, the students are responsible for capturing the learning that goes on during class and summing it up at the end. We put students on a rotation—four or five students in each class—and they will have a chance to be the “reporters”. I bought some neckties, scarves, and hats at the dollar store, and now I am thinking to fashion a media pass that the students could wear as well. This little bit will do a lot to help the children get into their role.


When I introduced the idea, we took time to discuss what learning looks like and made a list of questions that the reporters could ask students to find out what they are learning and to get deeper into their thinking. They took photos and videos to capture the action. (N.B. In the first weeks, students just took photos and videos of everything, so we had to stop and talk about being intentional and selective about what they capture.)

We reserved some time at the end of class for the reporters to share what they found. The intention, then, is that we can do a brief write-up as a class of what learning took place that week. This can be shared with the parents on our class blog.

Here is the consolidated list of the questions our reporters wanted to ask in order to find out more about what the students and thinking and learning. These could be great prompts for metacognition and reflection in any subject area. We have them on the wall by our reporter accessories.


The reporters loved their special role, and the other students loved being interviewed! This was great for metacognition, as the reporters were thinking differently, and the other students were stopping to think more carefully about how they described their experiences. And with the students summing everything up at the end of class, I can more easily identify student misconceptions or tangential inquiries. I think this has a lot of potential!

What are your strategies for getting a picture of your students’ deeper thinking?

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Children Need to Play

I’m sure that I’m mostly preaching to the choir here, but more and more research is coming out with a clear message about childhood: Children learn through play. This is how human beings are programmed to learn. And yet, more and more, free play and outdoor play are disappearing from our school’s schedules.

The complexities of role-play provide cognitive and social benefits that we cannot provide for the children when we teach them compartmentalized skills in math, phonics, and other stand-alone subject areas. When children are given time to engage in free play, following their own interests and curiosities, they become enthusiastically engrossed in observation, hypothesis, problem-solving, etc. They develop vital social skills and language skills, they develop their imagination and take great pride in their work. When my Grade 1 son comes home from school and I ask him what he did that day, he still answers that he “just played all day”. Yet he understands concepts like multiplication (which I certainly didn’t know anything about in Grade 1), and he demonstrates incredible emotional intelligence that I must admit has not all come from me.

children-learn-through-play-inquiryOf course there will always be things that we need to teach TO the students. But as you are planning this week, take some time to think about how much of your classroom experience is teacher-initiated and how much is provoking students to create, imagine, and play.

And for those of you all doing that, you probably have parents in your class who need convincing. This article is what inspired today’s post, and it could be a good resource to share with your parents.

How do you encourage child-initiated play in your classroom?

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Change: How do I get there?

I’m trying something very new and experimental in my classes this year. It’s wonderful, discouraging, overwhelming, eye-opening, frustrating and amazing all at once.

As teachers, we want the best for our children. We are visionaries, and we want to be game-changers all the time. So sometimes it can be frustrating or discouraging when we have an idea of where we want to be in our heads, but no matter what we do, we just aren’t there yet.

Today, I just want us to reflect on the steps that we are taking and enjoy the journey. Change takes time, and moving toward an incredible goal will inevitably have setbacks. Keep moving forward.


“The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.” – Lao Tzu

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Google Forms as Exit Slips

Here’s an idea for people who are fortunate enough to have computer access. If you are in a one-to-one school, or even if you have a class set of iPads, this is something to try!

Instead of a paper exit slip, email the students a link to a short Google Form. There are several options for question types, and you can even prompt the students with pictures or YouTube videos.


The genius in this system is that you can see all the responses in a single document! With this system I can quickly highlight or color-code to give an overview of the level of understanding in each of my classes. I’ve just started doing this, but I’m really excited about the potential.

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Setting up a Sound Exploration Station

Every music teacher knows how much students just want to experiment (make lots of noise) when they come into a room full of instruments. As people, this probably drives us crazy, but as teachers, we should rejoice in the enthusiasm and curiosity!

In the first few lessons of the year, I just let my pre-kindergarten children go nuts with a carefully selected set of instruments.


  1. The first lesson I just put the instruments out and let them play. Without much more prompting, I encouraged the students to sort their findings into “shaking”, “tapping” and “scraping” instruments.
  2. In the second lesson, I prompted them to think about a new way to make sounds on the instrument, and to figure out how to make both loud and quiet sounds. Some students started slowing down and really examining their instruments now.
  3. By the third lesson, some of the novelty had worn off–*some*–and more students were finally exploring with more purpose. Each child’s “moment” was fantastic to watch, as they went from shaking and banging with all their might, to carefully turning instruments in their hands, following the sticks and beaters with their eyes, and playing the instruments right next to their ears.


It [the wave drum] sounds like ocean music. Listen!

This one [triangle] makes a high sound, and that one makes a more high sound.
What kind of sound does that one make?

You can tap here, but it [the tambourine] also makes noise when I push my fingers on it.

[whispering] Can you hear this? It’s so soft.

*It’s a discussion for another day, but always make sure your students are using instruments with good sounds! I’m often appalled at xylophones or glockenspiels that are not in tune, bells that don’t have a nice ring, and other abominations labeled as “children’s musical instruments.” Some of the instruments I have kept in my room are linked below.

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Teaching with Halloween Songs

Although I’ve found myself acknowledging fewer holidays in my classes over the years, many students are still looking to make connections to some of the more popular holidays. Halloween is one.

Last year I wrote about a silly song you could sing with your students, and in this post I want to highlight a few other songs that could fit into your curriculum.

A few songs that are fun for children to sing:

  • Five Little Pumpkins (Raffi version) – great to reinforce the scales and stepwise motion
  • Skin and Bones – teach the children to sing piano and forte while maintaining good tone
  • Pick a Pumpkin – introduce sixteenth notes (tika tika)
  • This is Halloween – perhaps just sing the chorus, which is great for teaching “tika ti”


And some songs for listening and moving:

  • Theme from The Addams Family – snap or get out some claves to play along
  • Monster Mash – great for dancing, have the students create their own “monster mash”
  • Thriller – you know you want to teach them part of this dance…
  • Ghostbusters theme – great for adding some actions or dramatic play

In Music, this is a great time of year to explore that beautiful instrument known as the human voice. Do some vocalizing through ghostly wails. Practice dynamic range with sneaky monsters and surprised victims. Explore the different timbres of the voice, and discuss the incredible effects of changing timbres, dynamics, and pitch ranges. For younger children, try this book.

Finally, check out this post or this other post for some great classical music ideas to accompany the season of ghouls and spirits.

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Making Mistakes

I recently dedicated some time to closing some of the 86 tabs I had open, and I finally had a chance to read an Edutopia article that I’d opened long ago. As inquiry teachers, and certainly as music teachers as well, I think it is fairly intuitive to use mistakes as opportunities to reflect and improve, rather than simply labeling them as “wrong.” There were a few ideas that I’ve taken into my classroom this week with a heightened awareness of how I react to “wrong” answers, and I feel like they have helped to keep interest and momentum going.

The first was to respond with a clarifying question or a “What makes you say that? If you could ask yourself a question about that answer, what would it be?” Not only does this encourage the student to think more deeply, it also makes the student’s misconceptions more visible to me as the teacher.


Another interesting idea—and one that seemed pretty far out there when I first read it—is to have a wall or a class discussion where students focus on mistakes they’ve made and how they learned from them. I am still wrapping my head around the best way to frame that, but I like the concept!

The bottom line is that the more transparent we are about mistakes and how useful they can be to all of us (teachers and students), the more students will feel comfortable taking risks, trying new things, and learning from their mistakes instead of trying to hide them.

What kinds of things do you do to redirect mistakes into learning?

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Composition and Notation, Part II: Moving to Traditional Notation

If you haven’t read Part I, have a look there first.

At some point, the graphic notation will start to prove difficult. Students who are making more conscious, precise decisions about dynamics, pitch, and rhythm will need an equally precise system for notating their sounds. “Prep” the transition early on, and often, by exposing them to traditional notation and pointing out what you can see (familiar rhythms, pitch relationships, clefs, etc.). This way the symbols are already familiar and it just becomes a matter of taking it to the next level.

Students can begin by using the notation that they DO know. For example, they might write quarter notes and eighth notes higher and lower across a graphic score before they understand fixed pitch notation. As they gain literacy in traditional Western notation, they can incorporate more and more elements into their graphic scores.


As a final note, decide what your priorities are. Over the years, I have spent less and less time on explicitly teaching traditional Western notation. Students who need it are learning it in their private lessons. Many of the other students find it tedious and discouraging when they should be learning to understand the purpose of music, to enjoy listening to and making music, and to interpret music within its context. I present my students with many kinds of notation, and I expose them to traditional Western notation whenever it’s appropriate. And don’t get me wrong, I still ask students to try to notate compositions now and then; it is a skill that I want to develop in y students. But I am no longer pulling my hair out trying to get every single child to document their creativity in this specific way, I am no longer drilling students on lines and spaces, and I have a happier, more creative classroom because of it.

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Composition and Notation, Part I: Don’t Sweat the Small Staff

I used to get very frustrated trying to teach notation or getting students to accurately notate their compositions on the staff. But I’ve changed, and so can you!*

Don’t get bogged down with notating compositions. It kills the creative flow. Young composers know what they want their music to sound like. They can often remember it without writing anything down. If not, record it, and they can probably reproduce it.

As students start writing more complex music, or even just lengthier music, they can create a “musical map” of their piece. They should create symbols that another person can understand (i.e., there should be some logic behind them), and the map should show us the time relationships (i.e., where to begin and end, where there may be spaces, and some sense of relative duration).


Parallel to language literacy, young students can speak and think at a much higher level than they can fluently write. By not requiring students to notate in a specific way, you are allowing them to focus their energy on creating interesting musical compositions that are not limited by their notation abilities.

*Note: I’m not suggesting that students shouldn’t notate–or be able to notate–music. I’m simply saying that we shouldn’t let it be an obstacle to creativity. I no longer think that notation is as important for every student, from an early age, as I used to believe it was. Ready to move on to notation? Read Part II here.

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Tweet Your Learning

A great “exit ticket” for older students: At the end of class, give your students a few minutes to tweet a summary of the lesson (in 140 characters or less) using a designated hashtag, like #<CLASSNAMEdate> or #<schoolabbreviation>music<date>. Encourage them to engage further by reading each other’s tweets, and replying, between now and the next lesson. student-learning-twitter-social-media

Follow me on Twitter!

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